多产母羊:约旦美利奴种羊的基石

Andrew Jordaan Jr of Spekboomberg farm in Cradock in the Eastern Cape was named the Voermol National Sheep Farmer of the Year in 2018. Mike Burgess spoke to him about how he gets the most out of his ewes by leveraging both extensive and intensive production systems.

多产母羊:约旦美利奴种羊的基石
Commercial Jordaan Merino ewes in the mountains near Cradock. Ewes are farmed in traditional hamel camps and mated on high-lying plateaus, where they have been found to conceive more effectively. Historically, these high-lying areas received up to 800mm of rain per annum compared with 350mm on the flats below; however, these figures have not been achieved in years.照片:安德鲁·乔达恩
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The basis of the Andrew Jordaan en Seuns Merino stud is a flock of 3 500 highly productive ewes that have a mean weight of between 55kg and 60kg and produce an average of 1,5 lambs a year and 3,8kg of wool every eight months.

These admirable figures can be attributed largely to laparoscopic artificial insemination (LAI), a solid fodder flow programme and efficient management.

家族企业
美利奴种马是东开普省大克拉多克地区种植、乳制品和牛肉的大家庭经营的一部分。安德鲁·乔达恩的父亲和两个哥哥分别管理着不同的部门,乔达恩本人负责小规模的牲畜经营,包括6500只商业美利奴母羊和250只多默母羊。

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The foundation genetics of the Jordaan Merino stud were 100 stud ewes that Andrew Sr bought from his father’s stud, established in the early 1950s. In the 1980s, he launched an LAI programme, which, over the past four decades, has enabled the accelerated breeding of a productive Merino suited to conditions on the Jordaans’ properties.

乔达恩是美利奴南非技术委员会现任副主席。

“[LAI] has allowed for rapid genetic progression, and today we have sheep that perform very well in our area, where we combine pastures and veld,’’ says Jordaan.

“We use scientific data, such as BLUP breeding values, as well as visual appraisal to select functional, fertile and balanced sheep.’’

螺柱的另一个关键优势是发展了灌溉种植计划,目前覆盖1000公顷,这主要归功于与Orange Fish河隧道系统相关的水权。

该家族的种植企业为所有农业部门生产饲料,并使小牲畜倡议受益于稳定的饲料流动方案。除了以苜蓿、黑麦草和菊苣为主的牧场以及母羊饲养羔羊的牧场外,粗饲料在现场设施加工成颗粒饲料。

“Our fodder flow programme stabilises our livestock operations,’’ says Jordaan.

研究中使用的一个关键管理工具是引入了射频识别(RFID)标签系统,该系统收集数据,使Jordaan和他的团队能够快速测量基因和生产之间的关系。

他说:“RFID标签系统使得数据的处理变得更加容易,我们现在可以很容易地识别出哪些动物生产得好。”。

Extensive and intensive systems
Apart from the 10 to 12 weeks that Jordaan Merino ewes spend on pastures while raising lambs, they are always on the veld, supported by a standard lick regimen. Sweetveld
是专为年轻的母羊,而年长的母羊是运行在一个更高的盐含量舔sourveld。

Ewes are expected to handle rugged terrain with considerable tick loads (they are dipped with a portable facility) that traditionally would have been reserved for hamels [wethers].

“我们的母羊就是我们的哈默尔人,”乔达恩说他们像哈默尔人一样生产羊毛,给我产羊羔,所以,对我来说,养母羊是更好的选择。”

Diverse genetics
Jordaan Merinos have always been selected for multiple lambs, and rams are only selected from dam bloodlines with a history of twins and high production indices. All stud ewes (and 85% of the commercial flock) are inseminated laparoscopically. While 98% of the rams providing the semen for the LAI programme are self-bred, Jordaan still ensures that they are from as diverse a genetic background as possible.

他说:“群体中的遗传多样性是杂交活力的一种形式,在生产方面具有明显的优势。”。

Ewes are treated for internal parasites and flushed with a self-formulated production lick at six to four weeks before mating (and again before lambing).

初生母羊在11至12个月大时首次交配,体重在45公斤至48公斤之间。它们在牧场上度过生命的头六个月,然后被转移到sweetveld,并在交配前补充一次维护舔。母羊替换率为25%。

当母羊在山上更凉爽、海拔更高的高原上奔跑时,它们的受孕能力得到了提高。

然而,所有的种羊最终都会在秋季(4月)和春季(8月/9月)产羔季节在圈内产羔。种羊的平均产羔率在145%到150%之间,断奶率在135%到145%之间。在围栏里,羔羊被贴上标签并进入RFID标签系统,同时还接受维生素补充和预防球虫病的治疗。

These lambs are released with their mothers onto pastures after 10 days in the pens to ensure adequate bonding between lambs and ewes.

多羔羊母羊有优势

有单羔羊和多羔羊的母羊在牧场上被分成不同的群。多羔羊群的放牧质量更好,比单羔羊群更早接受爬行饲料。

小羊离开围栏大约两周后,通过自行设计的喂食器给它们喂食。尽管喂食器的开口设计为只允许羊羔接触到饲料,但母羊也可以通过一些努力获得有限的接触,这是乔达恩鼓励的行为。

“The creep feed stimulates milk production, and also means the ewes lead the lambs to the feed on a regular basis,’’ he says.

When lambs begin struggling to reach the feed effectively (as their heads increase in size), Jordaan and his team dispense the feed into cages that the lambs can crawl into.

日粮也改为颗粒饲料,使羔羊熟悉在10周左右断奶时在饲养场接受的饲料,平均体重为26公斤至27公斤。

Soon after weaning, the ewes are returned to the veld, while the lambs remain in the feedlots until they reach an average weight of 33kg at the age of between four and four-and-a-half months. They are then marketed to feedlots, and a portion are exported to the Middle East via the East London harbour.

Ideally, shearing takes place at eight months, but it can occur at 10 months. Eight- month wool (B to A length) has a better clean yield than 10-month wool (A to AA length). The average fibre diameter of the entire Jordaan wool clip has been 19,5 microns over the past few years, but decreased to 18,9 microns in the last season.

Just over half (55%) of the wool clip is sold under contract to the New Zealand Merino Wool Company at a predetermined price normally fixed 18 months in advance. This arrangement has proved invaluable for weathering price fluctuations brought about by unforeseen challenges such as the foot-and-mouth and COVID-19 outbreaks.

The family sells about1 500 Merino ewes every year, and markets 70 Merino rams (along with 30 Dormer rams) at their annual production sale. Rams are also marketed at the annual national Merino sale.

电子邮件:Andrew Jordaan Jr[电子邮件保护].

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