Onions to the rescue of a sheep farmer!

为蔬菜种子生产多样化,使卡罗杜羊农民PF占据了他的气候和生产风险,同时大大提高了盈利能力。他与Glenneis Kriel发表了关于他如何管理这一过程的谈话。

Onions to the rescue of a sheep farmer!
由于干旱在veld的效果,它必须使他的羊群朝向500母羊。Photo: Glenneis Kriel
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DWARS-IN-DIE-WEG,在八谷的Matjiesfontein附近,连续五年遭受了干旱,在过去三年中收到了少于60毫米的170毫米的平均雨。

Climatic conditions appear to have normalised this year, but PF Theron, who joined his father, Wilhelm, on the family farm at the start of the drought, estimates that it can take up to 10 years for Karoo vegetation to recover its full carrying capacity.

“The problem is that you can’t accelerate veld recovery by sowing seed, because the ecosystem is highly sensitive and the vegetation extremely diverse,” he explains.

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With climate change expected to result in more extreme conditions, the chances are high that the region could suffer another drought before the veld has fully recovered.

为了减轻绵羊对百威的影响,在干旱期间,在干旱期间,在干旱期间,在9 000公顷农场上的500母羊最终生产。

This would have been financially disastrous had Wilhelm not diversified into vegetable seed production a little more than 10 years ago, a move made possible by the farm’s good-quality borehole water.

PF Theron studied engineering before joining the family farm in 2015.

今天,这一方面的运作占农场收入的75%至80%。更重要的是,蔬菜种子生产通过在收获种子后通过供应放牧来生产绵羊生产。

“我们为各种种子公司生产洋葱,春天和胡萝卜种子,”解释道。

“胡萝卜不是真正营养的,但洋葱和春天洋葱厂在1月至3月之间提供了长达三个月的放牧,因为由于这是一个冬季降雨区,饲料一般稀缺。”

The only downside to this is that the sheep must be taken off this grazing at least three weeks before slaughter, as the onions badly affect the smell of the meat.

“Believe me, not doing so is a mistake you’ll only make once!” says Theron.

Sheep production
The sheep are raised under extensive veld conditions and taken to the onion and spring onion lands after the seed has been harvested.

“These lands should supply enough feed for two to three months at a stocking rate of 30 sheep/ha,” says Theron.

由于丰富的食物,Theron使用这次作为一个交配季节,将一个RAM放在洋葱陆地上有25个母羊。羔羊季节然后在6月左右开始,当时常有充足的自然放牧。

在此循环中未能抬起羊肉的母羊在8月份在veld中放置在ram。每月羊肉再次放在洋葱土地上时,这些母羊羔羊。

“我负担不起剔除羊肉,没有养一个羔羊,因为不可能知道他们因捕食而失去羔羊是否失去了羔羊,或者因为他们是穷人,”Theron说。

“We lose up to 30% of our sheep every year due to predation, with black-backed jackal and caracal being the main problems even though the farm is surrounded by jackal-proof fencing.”

Ewes are scanned 60 to 90 days after being placed with the rams, irrespective of the mating season. Those that failed to conceive are culled.

由于卡罗·灌木的高营养价值,羊不会收到补充饲料。然而,根据土壤水分的可用性,以前种植了植物种子的植物旱地燕麦。绵羊放牧燕麦或作物作为绿色粪便。

Lambs born in June are sold in November, and those born around January are sold between May and June under normal conditions. “We’ve been forced to sell lambs earlier during the drought to ensure there’s enough feed for the core flock,” notes Theron.

他每年植物大约20小时的洋葱和春天洋葱和5HA的胡萝卜,该地区正在生产中旋转,以防止积聚土壤传播疾病。这些品种还需要分开至少5km以防止交叉授粉。

“You can plant carrots after onions, but onions should only be planted on the same land once every four years,” explains Theron.

“我们在10月至11月进行土壤样品,以识别种植前营养不平衡和缺陷。我们的土壤是高度变化的,所以我们试图在样品中尽可能地获得不同的土壤混合。然后在种植之前解决缺陷和不平衡。“

由于农场上的水是咸咸的,通常在种植前几周增加石膏以解决潜在的盐度问题。

耗费体力
Production is extremely labour-intensive, but conveniently spread across the season.

“During the production season, we employ between 30 and 70 seasonal workers, and they need to help with everything from planting to weeding and harvesting of seed,” says Theron.

土壤深入涌至深深地40厘米,用旋转器松开,以缓解种植。
春天洋葱灯泡在2月和3月之间种植,取决于各种。种子每10天收获六次,从春天洋葱种植后两周。

从4月到5月种植洋葱灯泡,并准备从圣诞节到新年收获,而胡萝卜从6月到7月种植并从1月初开始收获到2月底。

The lands are under drip irrigation, as this is the most efficient way of delivering water and fertiliser to the plants. Its main drawback is that Theron has to remove the dripper lines each time after use.

他使用永久和磁带线。前者可以使用长达10年,但需要在安装在新土地上进行检查。每个季节都必须更换磁带线,但需要较少的护理和维护,因为它们仅使用一次。

洋葱植物在行中占地8cm,并以30cm的行间间距分开,滴点线在每行中间间隔开。滴用者分开30厘米,以约2英/小时的速度供水。

胡萝卜分开地种植了相同的距离,但具有18厘米的行间间距。每一行都有自己的滴点线,滴管分开20cm,交付1¼/小时。
基于土壤湿度,气候条件和植物的物理外观,冬季和400 000亩/公顷的水量施加的水量范围为250 000°/公顷。

“In winter we might irrigate a block for four hours once a week, and this could increase to five hours every four days in summer,” says Theron.

电源
农场没有访问Eskom电力,和energy is generated from solar panels, Lister Petter engines and a diesel generator.

“The diesel generator works out more expensive than the solar power, but is required where there isn’t enough sun,” says Theron.

目前,他采用了三个李斯特搬运工,从8kw到20kw,四个太阳泵从3kw到5kw泵浦水并运行他的灌溉系统。

The fertigation recipe has been developed to accommodate the plants’ nutritional demands at various growth stages, and are tweaked when deficiencies are identified.
随着干旱,该地区一直比较不含疾病和昆虫问题。

Theron nonetheless scouts the lands regularly for signs of problems and addresses these timeously. Production depends heavily on cross- pollination, so he plants male and female plants in the correct ratio and relies on bees to do their work.

“你可以拥有最令人惊叹的植物,但除非他们授粉,否则它不会意味着什么。我在本赛季中拥有40个蜂箱并租一个额外的150个荨麻疹,“Theron说。

电子邮件pf theron[email protected]

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