Managing a sheep flock before, during and after drought

Prof Tertius Brand, a scientist in animal nutrition at the Elsenburg Agricultural Training Institute, shares advice on how to manage a sheep flock during and after a drought in order for farmers to regain the profitability of their operations.

Managing a sheep flock before, during and after drought
农民Aimimg从一段时间内出现,需要将农业企业恢复为尽快最佳的生产力和盈利能力。再现是对绵羊群的盈利能力做出贡献的因素。Photo: FW Archive
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每个南非农民都知道,干旱a frequent reality in the country. According to Prof Tertius Brand, a specialist scientist in animal nutrition at Elsenburg and a presenter during a recent webinar on drought recovery, parts of South Africa are hit by droughts at an average rate of almost once every five years.

Sheep farmers are not spared the effects of drought, and it is therefore vital that they put proper management practices in place before and during a drought to keep their animals in good condition.

在干旱后,不太重要的是,在干旱后尽快恢复盈利。根据品牌,绵羊农民可以遵循许多公认的步骤,以确保在干旱期间和之后的羊群的良好喂养管理。

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Nutrition
Maintaining and regaining sufficient energylevels, he says, is one of the most important
在干旱中对动物的要求。

“在干旱期间,动物必须远行寻找食物和水。动物用来寻找这些能量的能量可以使用30%或更多的日常维护需求。“

The farmer should therefore ensure that animals have easy access to drinking water.
他补充说,哺乳母羊和年轻人,生长动物的能量需求比仅用于调理的动物的能量需求远高。

在干旱期间可以应用的另一种基本的营养原则是羔羊的早期断奶。在具有减少的饲料用品的困难季节中,可能会更经济到Wean Lambs早期以降低饲料成本,并确保母羊重新获得病情。

“一项研究发现,大约九周的羊羔早期断奶率为六周的羊羔可以节省大约30%的农民在母羊的饲料成本上,”品牌说。

Weaning lambs early has the benefit of high feed conversion.

“幼小动物具有明显更好的饲料转换率(消耗的饲料的重量,以产生1千克体重增加)而不是老年动物。

“由于肌肉建筑而不是脂肪沉积,年轻的羊羔在这方面也更有效。”

品牌补充说,蠕变喂养在羊羔的早期断奶中起重要作用,因为它确保适当的营养被提供给羊羔,同时减少对母羊的需求,给予他们在下一个繁殖季节之前重新获得病情。

When to start feeding animals
As a rule of thumb, explains Brand, a farmer should start supplementary feeding before ewes that are in good condition lose 15% of their initial weight. If animals are allowed to lose more weight than this, their reproductive processes will cease first, followed by eventual feed refusal and ultimately death from starvation.

当veld上有足够的粗饲料时,应提供旨在刺激瘤胃的生产舔,并允许饲养。与在天然veld上维护它们相比,在干旱地区喂养大约昂贵的动物大约五倍。

当喂养动物时,农民应该使用干草戒指,因为它可以防止浪费约30%,品牌建议。但是,他补充说,也很重要的是,提供足够的饲养空间,其中动物被密集地喂食,使得它们不被迫搅拌并争夺进入进料。

干旱后期管理
An important goal for any farmer emerging from a drought is to restore the enterprise to optimal productivity and profitability as quickly as possible.

“The main factors that contribute to the profitability of your sheep flock are reproduction
and the growth of lambs,” stresses Brand.

干旱后,农民应该寻求增加动物的重量。每1千克
of weight increase for an adult is equivalent to 12kg of feed. A 10kg increase for a 70kg ewe is therefore equivalent to 120kg of feed.

“At R3 500/t of feed, this increase will cost about R420 per ewe. That’s a fair amount of
需要花钱让母羊恢复理想体重,“他说。

因此,veld放牧,如果可用的话,与右边的舔舔,仍然是干旱后绵羊营养的最实惠的营养来源。然而,重要的是要注意农场的承载能力,因为百货公司也需要时间在干旱后恢复。

如果veld仍处于糟糕的形状,则提供第二个最便宜的选择牧场,提供
农场的水资源足够了
为了建立这一点,品牌说。

ewe效率
Targeting ewe efficiency is key to more profitable sheep production, stresses Brand. Ewe efficiency is linked to lambing percentage and ewe weight at mating.

“对于育种期间,对于母羊的每公斤体重增加,羔羊百分比增加了2%。所以母羊在交配速度5公斤越重,意味着出生时从羊群中获得10%的羔羊。“此外,在此期间的重量增加每公斤都会导致断奶率增加1,4%。

由于孕期早期营养较差,大量母羊丧失胎儿。因此,对于早期妊娠,母羊在早期妊娠期间提高营养,特别是那些在羊羔中具有倍数的母羊,这是至关重要的。

Feeding during the last six weeks of pregnancy is also important for ensuring a viable lamb. A farmer should remember that during and after a drought all the normal management
原则,如守卫寄生虫和消除非生产的动物,仍然适用。

“后者可以通过良好的记录保存来完成,并在干旱期间和之后彻底帮助做出决策,”品牌说。

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