遗传学推动乳品生产盈利能力

顶级遗传和农业技术的使用使KluitjiesGraal泽西队在西开普省的刺痛饰有挥发性价格的影响和投入成本上涨。Stud Manager Arno Schoonwinkel概述了Glenneis Kriel的方法。

遗传学推动乳品生产盈利能力
年轻的小母牛,干奶牛和公牛小牛留给不在生产中的营地。Photo: Glenneis Kriel
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Kluitjieskraal Jersey Stud has established itself as one of South Africa’s top Jersey studs, and has a string of SA Stud Book Elite awards to prove it. The Schoonwinkel family, who owns the stud, has been farming Jerseys on its mixed farms near Swellendam in the Western Cape, and selling its milk to a nearby cheese factory, for many years.

随着家庭始终保持每种动物的彻底记录,Schoonwinkels决定在2007年将牧群注册为螺柱。

“Doing this made sense, as it enabled us to make better-informed breeding decisions by
giving us access to more genetic information.

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“这很重要,因为一切都归结为泽西生产的遗传,”管理农场乳制品部门Arno Schoonwinkel说。

To identify the optimal genetic matches for the stud, the Schoonwinkels use the World Wide Sires program Select Sires Inc, which is free and open to any breeder. Schoonwinkel particularly likes the fact that it is unbiased and includes genetic suggestions from a broad range of companies.

为此,它使用人工智能来模拟从世界100个顶级泽西公牛的寄存器(根据泽西性能指数[JPI])的寄存器配合各种群体的结果,其中单个牛群在特定群体中。

基于预定义的七到八个头部会导致最佳遗传进展
然后标记了农民的标准。Schoonwinkel每四个月适应他的繁殖计划,以适应JPI的变化。

“我们的目标是获得塞和大坝最美品质的混合,重点是改善或至少与牛奶产量相关的牛奶生产量,牛奶固体含量和乳房质量的特征。”

他还旨在改善或维持体细胞计数,生育和乳房指数。这
last measure describes the genetic potential for udder conformation in terms of a number of sub-indices, namely udder height, width and depth, as well as placement, length and thickness of the teats.

再生产管理
The farm does not have a specific breeding season. Rather, cows are inseminated every day
of the working week to ensure a constant supply of milk. The stud comprises 1 600 animals, and an average of 750 heifers and cows are in milk throughout the year. The cows are milked twice a day in a fishbone parlour, with a capacity of 48 animals at a time.

All the calves are weighed at birth and the top 40 bull calves are selected immediately after birth for rearing, based on their genetic records and physical traits. The rest are culled.

“我们的顶级牛犊需求量很大,通常在它们准备离开农场之前就已经卖完了,因为它们有着优良的基因,”肖恩温克尔说。

KluitjiesGraal使用泽西岛SA品种顾问John Terblanche的服务,他根据各种身体特征在第一和第二哺乳期间占据奶牛,包括构建,符合性和蹄。

The results are incorporated into the breeding records, and cows that don’t make the grade are culled. Heifers are weighed again at 12 months, by which time they should have reached their target weight of 260kg, and inseminated. Cows are inseminated 50 days after calving.

那些未能设想的人再次受到专利,最多可占四次,之后他们被放置在一个农场的公牛之一。在平均每平均1,5个蛋白质的平均后,奶牛的父母在平均1,8个蛋白质之后进行了设想。

Schoonwinkel and his team administer hormone treatment (as a fertility booster) to cows that have not shown signs of heat by 60 days of being in milk.

该种马的平均产犊期为365天,哺乳周期为305天。雌性动物平均产卵量为8815只ℓ 每次哺乳期的乳汁
containing on average 5,03% butterfat, 3,99% protein and a somatic cell count of 136 000.

Nature vs nurture
具有顶级遗传学意味着没有高效的畜群管理。Schoonwinkel使用三个单独的软件系统来帮助他:Devisa牛奶,Alpro Herd
management system, and CowManager.

Devisa Milk通过整合所有生产细节,包括遗传,牛奶生产,体重和小牛记录,并更新它们,帮助录音保持。该计划还与SA螺柱书籍链接。

Alpro的系统测量每台牛的牛奶生产,并通过每分钟生产减速到400ml下方,通过关闭挤奶系统。该计划还管理在客厅中提供给每台奶牛的蛋白质补充剂的体积,基于她的平均牛奶生产超过七天。

螺柱平均产生28次牛奶/牛/天超过七天,其中约150克的浓缩物在营地的饲料顶部的客厅中提供给每只动物。根据Schoonwinkel的说法,Alpro系统的唯一缺点是它无法衡量奶牛是否会消耗提供给它们的所有竞争。

The rations are carefully pre-formulated to accommodate the nutritional needs of the cattle. The feed concentrate in the parlour contains about 17% protein and a variety of essential minerals and vitamins; in the camps , the cattle receive a high-protein ration comprising oats and maize silage produced on the farm, in combination with lucerne and
棉籽买入。

在过去的四年里,Schoonwinkels一直在使用Cowmanager。该计划采用机器学习来监测基于耳温,牛活动,谣言,进食和休息时间的牛健康,生育,营养和位置。测量通过耳传感器拍摄,耳朵传感器在犊牛后连接到牛。

农民可以通过智能手机或电脑上的应用程序获取不断更新的数据。

“牛群动物,奶牛通常不会显示疾病的症状,直到它几乎为时已晚。Choonwinkel说,CowManager通过在有明显的改变时,我们将识别这些动物早些时候通过标记它们。“饮食习惯和运动。

这项计划还帮助降低生产成本,让奶牛在高温下生长这就省去了热探测的一些猜测,让我们能够在正确的时间使用吸管。”

Great care is taken to ensure that calves get off to a good start, as they are the farm’s
future income generators. The cows, and especially the heifers, calve in camps near the main building to allow Schoonwinkel to address complications more easily.

小牛在出生的三小时内接收初乳。

“初乳含有抗体和免疫球蛋白that help protect the calf against disease until its own immune system has developed,” explains Schoonwinkel.

虽然农场有初乳银行,但有奶牛每天出生,Schoonwinkel
喜欢每头牛吮吸她自己的小腿,因为初乳的质量随着时间的推移而退化。

The calves are taken away from the cows and placed in calf crates when they are a day old. Each receives 1,5ℓ of milk twice day, which is gradually increased to 2,5ℓ twice a day by the time it is three weeks old.

From 10 days, the calves are given feed and finely ground hay to simulate rumen development. The feed comprises a premixed formulation, SS 200, combined with canola
oilcake, molasses, maize, barley and lucerne.

犊牛在2,5个月内从板条箱中取出,其中它们被断奶牛奶断奶。然后将它们保存在一个小营中,长达两周,让它们用于共享饲养和饮酒。

“Moving the calves into small groups before sending them off to the rest of the farm helps reduce weaning stress and improve calf health,” says Schoonwinkel.

The farm’s main disease threat is cryptosporidium, a microscopic parasite that causes diarrhoea and can also lead to pneumonia.

“We’ve tried many tricks to root out this disease, but with no success so far. We’re now
contemplating building new calf crates,” he says.

奶牛的平均哺乳期为2.5天,表现最好的奶牛的哺乳期更长。

“The genetics improve so fast that it doesn’t pay to keep the cows longer. They need to be replaced by their significantly better-performing daughters. In fact, the genetics improve annually, so we want to ensure we have the most profitable cows in milk with each cycle,” says Schoonwinkel.

Email Arno Schoonwinkel at[电子邮件保护]

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