顶级遗传和农业技术的使用使KluitjiesGraal泽西队在西开普省的刺痛饰有挥发性价格的影响和投入成本上涨。Stud Manager Arno Schoonwinkel概述了Glenneis Kriel的方法。

年轻的小母牛,干奶牛和公牛小牛留给不在生产中的营地。Photo: Glenneis Kriel
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Kluitjieskraal Jersey Stud has established itself as one of South Africa’s top Jersey studs, and has a string of SA Stud Book Elite awards to prove it. The Schoonwinkel family, who owns the stud, has been farming Jerseys on its mixed farms near Swellendam in the Western Cape, and selling its milk to a nearby cheese factory, for many years.


“Doing this made sense, as it enabled us to make better-informed breeding decisions by
giving us access to more genetic information.

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“这很重要,因为一切都归结为泽西生产的遗传,”管理农场乳制品部门Arno Schoonwinkel说。

To identify the optimal genetic matches for the stud, the Schoonwinkels use the World Wide Sires program Select Sires Inc, which is free and open to any breeder. Schoonwinkel particularly likes the fact that it is unbiased and includes genetic suggestions from a broad range of companies.




last measure describes the genetic potential for udder conformation in terms of a number of sub-indices, namely udder height, width and depth, as well as placement, length and thickness of the teats.

The farm does not have a specific breeding season. Rather, cows are inseminated every day
of the working week to ensure a constant supply of milk. The stud comprises 1 600 animals, and an average of 750 heifers and cows are in milk throughout the year. The cows are milked twice a day in a fishbone parlour, with a capacity of 48 animals at a time.

All the calves are weighed at birth and the top 40 bull calves are selected immediately after birth for rearing, based on their genetic records and physical traits. The rest are culled.


KluitjiesGraal使用泽西岛SA品种顾问John Terblanche的服务,他根据各种身体特征在第一和第二哺乳期间占据奶牛,包括构建,符合性和蹄。

The results are incorporated into the breeding records, and cows that don’t make the grade are culled. Heifers are weighed again at 12 months, by which time they should have reached their target weight of 260kg, and inseminated. Cows are inseminated 50 days after calving.


Schoonwinkel and his team administer hormone treatment (as a fertility booster) to cows that have not shown signs of heat by 60 days of being in milk.

该种马的平均产犊期为365天,哺乳周期为305天。雌性动物平均产卵量为8815只ℓ 每次哺乳期的乳汁
containing on average 5,03% butterfat, 3,99% protein and a somatic cell count of 136 000.

Nature vs nurture
具有顶级遗传学意味着没有高效的畜群管理。Schoonwinkel使用三个单独的软件系统来帮助他:Devisa牛奶,Alpro Herd
management system, and CowManager.

Devisa Milk通过整合所有生产细节,包括遗传,牛奶生产,体重和小牛记录,并更新它们,帮助录音保持。该计划还与SA螺柱书籍链接。



The rations are carefully pre-formulated to accommodate the nutritional needs of the cattle. The feed concentrate in the parlour contains about 17% protein and a variety of essential minerals and vitamins; in the camps , the cattle receive a high-protein ration comprising oats and maize silage produced on the farm, in combination with lucerne and





Great care is taken to ensure that calves get off to a good start, as they are the farm’s
future income generators. The cows, and especially the heifers, calve in camps near the main building to allow Schoonwinkel to address complications more easily.


“初乳含有抗体和免疫球蛋白that help protect the calf against disease until its own immune system has developed,” explains Schoonwinkel.


The calves are taken away from the cows and placed in calf crates when they are a day old. Each receives 1,5ℓ of milk twice day, which is gradually increased to 2,5ℓ twice a day by the time it is three weeks old.

From 10 days, the calves are given feed and finely ground hay to simulate rumen development. The feed comprises a premixed formulation, SS 200, combined with canola
oilcake, molasses, maize, barley and lucerne.


“Moving the calves into small groups before sending them off to the rest of the farm helps reduce weaning stress and improve calf health,” says Schoonwinkel.

The farm’s main disease threat is cryptosporidium, a microscopic parasite that causes diarrhoea and can also lead to pneumonia.

“We’ve tried many tricks to root out this disease, but with no success so far. We’re now
contemplating building new calf crates,” he says.


“The genetics improve so fast that it doesn’t pay to keep the cows longer. They need to be replaced by their significantly better-performing daughters. In fact, the genetics improve annually, so we want to ensure we have the most profitable cows in milk with each cycle,” says Schoonwinkel.

Email Arno Schoonwinkel at[电子邮件保护]

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