屡获殊荣的芒果制片人表示可以获得100吨/公顷

Jaco Fivaz, farm manager of Mohlatsi farm in Limpopo, is a pioneer of high-density mango orchards, which achieve a greater yield per hectare than conventional orchards. Pieter Dempsey visited this award-winning grower to find out more about his passion for experimentation, and how he manages a diverse mango business.

屡获殊荣的芒果制片人表示可以获得100吨/公顷
Hoedspruit,较长,温暖,潮湿,潮湿的夏季,短,凉爽,干燥的冬季,为芒果生产提供了理想的高潮条件。Photo: Pieter Dempsey
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Jaco Fivaz has a wealth of experience in mango production and has been the farm manager on Mohlatsi farm near Hoedspruit in Limpopo for the past 17 years.

农场生产各种各样的芒果品种,如Tommy Atkins,Keitt和
Sensation, and also has a packhouse, a drying unit, and an achar production facility. The
Packhouse仅在一年中大约四个月的时间,在收获季节,而干燥单元可以干燥各种产品,全年运行。

Achar单位于2016年开始,每年在150T至600T之间产生,这取决于水果的可用性。一年前开放的更新的创业是农场商店,芒果启发的产品直接向公众销售。

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它由Fivaz的妻子,贝琳达和Fivaz经营,特别为其成功感到骄傲。商店里的一切都是由或包括芒果制成的。

Jaco Fivaz是一家高密度芒果果园的先驱,他在竞标时种植以增加每公顷产量。

“人们始终联系我们希望直接从工厂或生产设施购买,因此我们决定创建一个单独的空间来销售各种各样的产品,如achars,mango mustard和chutneys,以及芒果烛台。”

Fivaz于1994年在MBOMBELA的农业研究委员会(ARC)于1994年开始担任芒果的作物研究员。他在比勒陀利亚大学培养和水果套装百合培训和水果套装硕士学位,但被雇用为收获后
弧形的研究员。

“However, I soon became more involved with pruning instead of post-harvest research,” he says. After this, he worked as a researcher at Westfalia Technological Services and in 1998 started at Bavaria Fruit Estate, where he first started farming mangoes.

Fivaz believes that the key to growing good-quality mangoes is to plant the trees in sandy and rocky soils.

“I don’t believe in stressing the trees and it’s easier to apply nitrogen in sandy soils rather than heavy soils,” he says.

Mohlatsi farm covers 350ha, and 150ha of these are under production. When Fivaz arrived here in 2004, only 45ha were planted to mangoes, but the area under production has been expanding ever since.

施肥计划和种植
The farm’s fertilisation programme is managed by two companies, Omnia Fertilizer and
Loskop ICT, on different blocks.

“这些公司根据对土壤中需要的分析提出建议,然后我们将使用正确的肥料供应树木。”

The normal fertilisation programme includes ammonium sulphate for nitrogen, potassium sulphate, calcium nitrate, boron and zinc. The total amount of nitrogen supplied during a year is usually about 80kg/ha.

The majority of the mango trees on the farm are spaced at 6m x 1m. This, says Fivaz, is not typical for the industry and the dense planting helps achieve higher yields per hectare without sacrificing quality.

“行业标准约为6m x 2米。不是每种品种都可以在这样的高处生长
密度,并在将来,我会看种植适合更高密度的某些品种。“

For the Tommy Atkins cultivar, he plans to implement a 6m x 1,5m or 6m x 2m spacing, for the Keitt cultivar a 5m x 1m spacing, and for the Sensation and Lormey cultivars a 4m x 1m spacing.

“高密度种植的好处是它允许早期高收益率和更好的回报。它还迫使农民努力修剪!“

Production management
Fivaz和他的团队正在进行更精确的农业管理技术,目前包括对每个块进行土壤和叶片分析。

“The blocks are farmed and managed independently. We decide on a block-by-block basis whether the fruit will be used for processing or fresh marketing.”

They spray the block only after it has been scouted for pests, adjusting the spraying programme to each block.

“We’re very light on chemicals, as there are many valuable insects in the orchards,
such as bees, that we need to protect.”

Environmental management takes a high priority and they work at eradicating invasive
植物品种。然而,它们不会删除许多树木。

“蜜蜂非常重要。我们还植物罗勒试图增加农场的蜜蜂人口。“

The farm receives between 400mm and 500mm of rainfall per year, and also draws
water from the Lower Blyde River water scheme. Irrigation is carried out six days a week, with micro-irrigation used for mature trees and drip irrigation for young orchards. The micro system delivers between 38ℓ/tree/day and 45ℓ/tree/day and drip irrigation 16ℓ/tree/day to 20ℓ/tree/day.

所有品种跨越农场的平均产量在20t / ha和22t / ha之间,但Fivaz与Keitt品种设定了85t /公顷。平均断裂均匀的产量在18T /公顷相当高,生产成本可以是R80 000 / HA和R90 000 /公顷的密集操作。

“I’m convinced that we haven’t yet reached the ceiling for maximum yield for mangoes. There’s room for growth; it’s possible to achieve 100t/ha.”

He adds that they are currently running one of the largest cultivar and selection evaluation
programmes in the Southern Hemisphere.

“We’re doing this evaluation in conjunction with the ARC’s Institute for Tropical and
亚热带作物。这个程序的第一个选择将很快展示
registration and released to mango growers.”

Diseases, insects and pruning
在Mohlatsi Farm Faces是粉状霉菌的主要疾病挑战中,
真菌疾病anthracnose, and brown rot, which occurs during the flowering stages.

这些疾病都是使用真菌化学喷雾治疗。最重要的昆虫害虫是蓟马,这可能呈现严重的威胁。只有一种化学物品为害虫注册,但由于其高成本,Fivaz和他的团队通常会使用硫代替。

他们还经历了芒果鼻子象鼻虫的问题。然而,随着用于控制的化学物质,它可以在水果上留下残留物,这将使它们取消资格
export, they use it sparingly, applying it as a drench application directly to the soil.

Pruning plays an important role in achieving higher yield. The trees are pruned in the same
manner as fruit trees in the deciduous industry, with pruning systems such as the central
领导者,封闭的花瓶,开放式花瓶和掌上型。

“Ideally, pruning should be done throughout the year, but cash flow constraints make this difficult to achieve,” says Fivaz.

从10月到12月发生修剪,从1月到4月的收获后修剪。该农场有49名全职员工,在主要的收获季节,员工最多有200名临时劳动者。Packhouse聘请了两个永久性和70名收获时间的工人,而干燥机组在旺季期间拥有17名永久性工人和约120名季节性工人。

A performance incentive scheme is in place, and long-term employees are offered certain benefits. For example, permanent employees in the achar factory who have been with the company for more than 10 years are given profit shares in the business unit.

从错误学习
Fivaz说,过去他们在农场上制作的最大错误之一是植物出现一定的品种,从早期出现很少的潜力。

“It’s very important to do research about the type of cultivar you plant and to ensure that
it’s suitable for the area where you farm.

“另一个错误不是在价值增加和多元化的投资!”

Email Jaco Fivaz at[电子邮件受保护].

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